The Deccan Traps, India (Part 4): Quaternary sediments of the Godavari River basin, Maharashtra

Mugdha Chimote (India) The discovery of Quaternary sediments around Godavari River in Maharashtra (Fig. 1) was something of an accident. Sankalia (1952) first encountered these sediments while excavating the Lower Palaeolithic Industry in the region. Upon discovery, Sankalia brought onboard many geologists, such as Prof S N Rajaguru, Shanti Pappu, Gudrun Corvinus and R V Joshi, to bring an interdisciplinary approach to the study. Based on their geomorphic studies, Sankalia et al. (1952) concluded that the Quaternary palaeoclimates differed from present climates: the bedload stream represented wet climates, while the fine-grained sediments represented dry climates. Following this discovery, the Archaeological Society of India conducted similar such studies in the Narmada, Pravara and Tapi basins. Fig. 1. Location map of the study area. Quaternary records of upland Maharashtra include colluvial (material transported by the action of gravity) and alluvial (material transported by river) sediments. Along the river channels, alluvial sediments occur as discontinuous outcrops, whereas those in the basins do not exceed a thickness of 50m. Quaternary sediments account for the recent geological strata, which lie on the uppermost layers of earth and have been exposed relatively to the least amounts of erosion. The Earth underwent dynamic climatic variations in the Quaternary period, from glacial-interglacial events, development of monsoonal wind patterns, the formation of deserts and palaeomagnetic reversals, to mass extinctions. These incidents in turn led to geomorphic processes, such as the rejuvenation of rivers, alteration of those rivers’ courses during each rejuvenation and the occurrence of flash floods. It is … Read More

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