Golden Dinosaur from the depths of the London Mine: Mystery of Genevieve

Steven Wade Veatch and Teresa L Stoiber (USA) The legend of “Genevieve”, a fossilised dinosaur not only made of stone — but also of gold — began on 3 July 1932. That was the day WK Jewett, owner of the London Mine near Alma in Colorado, stopped at the Antlers Hotel in Colorado Springs and made the official announcement of its unearthing. The story was picked up by the news services and word of the fantastic find spread through the scientific world like a prairie fire. The golden dinosaur was discovered by William White, 700 feet (213m) underground — deep in the London Mine (WK Jewett, 1932). Curiously, the miners had been using the creature’s nose as a lamp holder, not realising there was a ‘dinosaur’ (if that is what it was) there. White, a hard rock miner, believed at first he was looking at two stumps. In reality, it was a dinosaur lying on its back with its limbs at an angle of 75 degrees. Eager to retrieve it from its rocky tomb, miners blasted it out of rock at the 700-foot level of the London Mine with dynamite. The blast shattered the specimen. Bits and pieces of the dinosaur were hoisted to the surface, where curious crowds gathered to see the prehistoric monster. As the story goes, a geology professor at Colorado College, Robert Landon, travelled to Alma so he could examine Genevieve – an extraordinary record of a former world. The measurements he made revealed that the … Read More

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Brihadeeswarar Temple, India

Khursheed Dinshaw (India) Construction of the Brihadeeswarar Temple (also spelt Brihadisvara or Brihadeshwara), which is in Thanjavur in the state of Tamil Nadu, India, began in 1003 AD by Rajaraja I and was completed in 1010 AD. It is made of blocks of granite that were sourced from around 50km away. Almost 130,000 tonnes of granite were used to build this temple. The popular theory of how the blocks were transported is that they were gradually rolled here with the help of elephants. The design of the temple is meant to represent a cosmic structure called Mahameru, which symbolises energy from the universe, including from living as well as inanimate beings. The temple is dedicated to Lord Shiva in the form of a lingam (that is, a symbol of divine generative energy often in the form of a phallus), which is 3.66m high. The courtyard inside which the temple is built measures 240m by 120m. The Brihadeeswarar Temple, also known as the Big Temple, is an architectural marvel in stone of the Chola dynasty. It is also a UNESCO World Heritage Site. The tower, which is built over the sanctum, has a height of about 66m and has 13 storeys (Fig. 1). Fig. 1. The tower built over the sanctum has a height of 217 feet and has 13 stories. There are eight sikharas (spires), which are also made of stone and weigh about 81 tonnes. There are two circumambulatory passages. The walls of the lower passage are decorated with … Read More

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Jade: Imperial green gem of the East (Part 2) – decorative and ornamental jade

Sonja McLachlan (UK) In the second part of this five-part series of articles, I will be exploring the beautiful examples of ornamental and decorative jade carvings that can be found in many places around the world. Ancient peoples collected and sculpted jade into unique symbolic items representing their own cultures and beliefs. Today, modern jade sculpting honours this ancient symbolism whilst introducing contemporary themes, thereby widening the appeal of this ancient art form. Maori Jade Carving The Maoris valued jade for its toughness and it was often made into weapons and tools such as adzes and chisels used for working with wood. Modern jade carving reflects the Maori traditions with new interpretations on fishhooks, circular koru pendants and beautiful double and triple jade twists that represent bonding and friendship. Models of Kiwis, Turtles and Dolphins can also be found carved in jade. Fig. 1. Maori-style Pendant, carved out of solid Jade. Inspired by Maori designs. Spiral – Koru – The fern fronds represent life, new beginnings, life unfolding, growth & harmony. The stylisation of Koru represents the spirit of rejuvenation. Fig. 2. Another Maori-style pendant, fish hooks – Hei Matau. Represents strength & determination. Brings peace, prosperity, abundance and good luck. It also provides safe transport over water. Chinese Jade Carving The highest quality Burmese Jade is sent to China where it is used for the finest objects and religious figures. It is often found in the grave furnishings of high-ranking members of the imperial family. The raw stone is … Read More

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Jade: Imperial green gem of the East (Part 1) – mining the gem

Sonja McLachlan (UK) In this, the first of a five-part series exploring the mineral Jade, I will explore  the various locations around the world in which Jade is found and mined. The world geography of jade mining Imperial jade, in all the colours and forms in which it is found, has appealed to many Eastern cultures since early times. It has been extensively mined and collected across the ages by many different people. However, in 1863, it was finally realised that the name “Jade” was being applied to two different minerals: jadeite and nephrite. Both jadeite and nephrite deposits are found in various places around the world. However, the jadeite mineral is much more rare than nephrite and, therefore, has a greater value to both the miner and collector. Nephrite deposits Nephrite jade deposits have been found in Khotan and Yarkand in Turkestan in China. Khotan is a city oasis and located on the famous “Jade” or “Silk Road”. New Zealand jade or “Pounamu” is found only in river boulders on the South Island. Deposits are also found in the Swiss Alps at Salux, Val de Faller, Poschiaro and the Gottard Range. Nephrite jade has been found in British Columbia, Canada where it is surface-mined. Large-scale mining began in Canada in 1995 and    currently  approximately 100  tonnes  a  year  are  mined and  sent  to  China. The finest jade found here is called “Polar Jade” and is especially translucent and green, which is rare in nephrite specimens. Jadeite deposits The most … Read More

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Prominent figures of the 1800s who gave rise to vertebrate palaeontology

Megan Jacobs (UK) For centuries, the creatures of the past, from the terrifying theropod dinosaurs to the tiny early mammals, have captured the imaginations of millions. However, the people who put those beasts into the limelight are rarely acknowledged for their work and, in many cases, remain unknown. So here is a short account of some of the first prominent names in the world of vertebrate palaeontology, their contributions to the field, and an insight into the often eccentric behaviour that came with it. Georges Cuvier (1769-1832) Fig. 1. Georges Cuvier.Georges Cuvier was a French naturalist and zoologist, and is regarded as the ‘’father of palaeontology’’. He was one of the finest minds in history, founding vertebrate palaeontology as a scientific discipline. For example, in 1800, he identified Pterodactylus as the first known pterosaur from a print published by Alessandro Collini. Shortly after, he described the first mosasaur, a giant marine reptile that was brought to France by Napoleon after he conquered the Netherlands. Going against his old Christian (Catholic) upbringing, Cuvier believed the Earth was immensely old and, during its history, underwent abrupt changes that Cuvier called ‘revolutions’, in which large numbers of species were wiped out. This was the first recognition that extinctions were facts. Cuvier also rightly speculated that there had been a time where reptiles had been the dominant animals on the planet. Indeed, the decades after his death yielded spectacular finds that confirmed his theory. After a study comparing modern elephant species, he worked on … Read More

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Carbonate platforms and coral reefs: The Coralline Oolite of the Yorkshire Upper Jurassic – a prime source of palaeontological information

Keith Eastwood (UK) The Malton Oolite Member of the Coralline Oolite Formation (Corallian Group), as exposed in the Betton Farm South Quarry (TA00158555) at East Ayton, near Scarborough (Fig. 1), provides a wealth of fascinating palaeontological and sedimentological information. Examination of outcrops within this small quarry enables the geologist to reconstruct the palaeoenvironment of deposition of the Betton Farm Coral Bed, a localised system of patch, ribbon and framework reefs that developed during the Upper Jurassic. Fig. 1. Locality map of the Betton Farm and Spikers Hill quarries. Geological outcrops from BGS Sheet 54 (Scarborough) (1998), (Wright, 2001, p.157, fig.4.20). Total image © Joint National Conservation Committee; geological outcrop map – British Geological Survey © NERC. Redrawn and reproduced with permission. The lithology and textural characteristics of the Malton Oolite Member provide a sedimentological basis for the interpretation, but the fossil content adds definitive ecological and climatic insights. The Malton Oolite is the upper of two oolite members in the Coralline Oolite Formation (Fig. 2). The lower one, the Hambleton Oolite Member, is not seen in the Betton Farm Quarries (which consist of two quarries: Betton Farm North Quarry and Betton Farm South Quarry, north and south of the A170, respectively) but is fully exposed in the Spikers Hill Quarry (SE 980863) just 3km to the WNW (Fig. 1). This location is important in providing a regional depositional context for the Betton Farm deposits, even though the upper surface of the intervening Middle Calcareous Grit Member is a minor unconformity. … Read More

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Images of cells preserved in stone

 Mike Viney (UK) As a child, petrified wood captured my imagination. However, as an adult, when someone taught me to look at the fossil wood at a microscopic level, I was in awe. At that moment, I like to think that I shared a joy similar to what the famous scientist, Robert Hooke, must have experienced when he examined fossil wood structure using his microscope, the first person ever to do so. The development of digital cameras and microscopes has catalysed my interest in using both technologies to zoom in on fossil wood specimens. In this respect, the purpose of this article is to stimulate this same interest among collectors. The building blocks of life In the last paragraph of The Origin of Species, Charles Darwin (1809-1882) eloquently reflects on the common ancestry of life on Earth. There is a grandeur in this view of life, with its several powers, having been originally breathed into a few forms or into one; and that, whilst this planet has gone cycling on according to the fixed law of gravity, from so simple a beginning endless forms most beautiful and most wonderful have been, and are being, evolved.” (Darwin, 1859, p. 490) Darwin recognised that there exists a continuity to life on Earth through his theory of natural selection. This same continuity is echoed in the work of the German physician, Rudolf Virchow (1821-1902). In his 1858 classic work, Die Cellularpathologie, Virchow enunciates an idea that would add a critical component to cell … Read More

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Urban micrometeorites: A myth?

Jon Larsen (Norway) Is it possible to find micrometeorites in populated areas? The question has been raised for nearly a century and, despite numerous attempts to find them, the answer up to this day has been a very short “no”. Meanwhile, our knowledge about these amazing stones has gradually increased. There is a continuous evolutionary line in the research on micrometeorites, from the early pioneers, John Murray and Adolf Erik Nordenskiöld in the nineteenth century, to Lucien Rudaux and Harvey H Nininger. With Donald E Brownlee and Michel Maurette in the 1960s, micrometeoritics became real science. During the past two decades, this research has accelerated thanks to, among others, Susan Taylor, who extracted micrometeorites from the water well at the South Pole, Matthew Genge, who figured out the classification, and other splendid researchers, in addition to the space probes that have returned to Earth with dust samples from comets and asteroids. Today, there is a growing literature about micrometeorites, but still the answer to the initial question is “no” and urban micrometeorites have been considered an urban myth. Micrometeorites have been found in the Antarctic, but also, to some extent, in prehistoric sediments, remote deserts and in glaciers – places that are clear of the confusing anthropogenic influence. The wall of contamination has been considered insurmountable. It is therefore with pride and joy that I can report here about a project involving the systematic examination of all sorts of anthropogenic and naturally occurring spherules in an empirical search for micrometeorites … Read More

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Fake fossils by the hundred: Johann Beringer’s ‘lying-stones’

Paul D Taylor (UK) The sorry tale of Johann Beringer has been part of the folklore of palaeontology for almost 200 years. In 1726, Beringer published a book illustrating some extraordinary ‘fossils’ reputedly found in the rocks close to Würzburg in southern Germany. However, very soon after its publication, Beringer realised that he had been tricked and that the specimens were fakes. The truth about the deception – and its perpetrators – is still shrouded in mystery, and the story of Beringer’s Lügensteine (’lying-stones’) ranks with Piltdown Man as the greatest of all fossil frauds. Who was Beringer? No portrait exists of Johann Bartholomew Adam Beringer (1667–1740) despite the fact that he was an important figure in Würzburg during the early eighteenth century. The son of an academic, Beringer became Chief Physician to the Prince Bishop of Würzburg and Duke of Franconia (Christoph Franz von Hutten) and to the Julian Hospital, and was also the Dean of the Faculty of Medicine at Würzburg University. Like other learned men of the time, Beringer kept a ‘cabinet of curiosities’ said to contain ammonites, belemnites and sharks’ teeth. He seems to have led a conventional life for someone of his high standing until May 1725, when an unfortunate train of events was set in motion. Three young men employed by Beringer to supply him with fossils delivered the first of a truly remarkable series of specimens purported to have been found at Mount Eibelstadt, a few kilometres south of Würzburg. These are the … Read More

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Armboth Dyke, Lake District

Mark Wilkinson (UK) The Armboth Dyke makes a good half day geology excursion in a scenic but quiet part of the UK Lake District. Parking is on the west shore of Thirlmere, in a pay-and-display car park accessed by the narrow road that winds around that side of the lake (Grid reference NY 305 172). The car park is in an excellent setting, with direct access to the wooded lake shore, and would be a great place for the non-geologically minded to wait while you venture onto the adjacent hill. It is probably worth noting at this point that the dyke itself is mostly exposed on rather featureless rolling moorland at around 400m above sea level (Fig. 1), and might not be a good place to visit in thick mist, unless you are very confident with a map and compass. If you happen to be in the business of teaching students to make geological maps, this site makes a great practise day, without too many problems of recognising weathered rocks in the field. Fig 1. Moorland with the dyke just visible as a slightly lighter patch of rock below the red arrow, where the edge of the dyke is exposed. University of Edinburgh students for scale. So, assuming you have decent weather, leave the car park and take the path uphill from the west side of the minor road, a few metres to the north of the car park. The path is steep-ish, and can be slippery if wet, so … Read More

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Seeing into the ‘Stone Age’: The stone tools of early man

Bob Markham (UK) In the early part of his evolution, man made great use of rock and stone to assist him in his activities. The term ‘Stone Age’ has been given to the period of time during which stone was the main material used for the manufacture of functional tools for daily life. It is generally thought to have commenced about 3.3Ma and was the time when man firmly established his position on earth as a ‘tool-using’ mammal. However, it should be remembered that stone was not the only material used for this purpose. More perishable materials, such as wood, reeds, bone and antler, were also used, but very few of these materials have survived to be found today (but see the box: Non-stone tools). Non-stone toolsA notable exception to the general rule that non-stone tools have not been preserved is the Palaeolithic wooden spear shaft that was recovered in 1911 from a site in Clacton in Essex. At 400,000 years old, the yew-wood spear is the oldest, wooden artefact that is known to have been found in the UK (see http://piclib.nhm.ac.uk/results.asp?image=001066).A number of wooden spears dating from 380,000 to 400,000 years ago were also recovered between 1994 and 1998 from an open-cast coal mine in Germany (see https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Schoningen_Spears). Other items are found from time to time from peat-bog conditions, which offer the most favourable medium for the preservation of such material.The stones used to make tools Being a non-perishable material, stone has survived the ravages of time and is … Read More

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Urban geology: A rostroconch in Hoofddorp

Stephen K Donovan (The Netherlands) Part of my job is to provide service teaching for the University of Leiden. The university lacks a geology department, but my colleagues and I provide tuition in stratigraphy and palaeontology for life science students at the undergraduate and masters degree level. One of my favourite practical classes is a building stones tour of a part of Leiden that is rich in Mississippian (Lower Carboniferous) limestones, which are packed with fossils. These have been used for facing stones, external stairs and paving slabs. Many have been in place for some hundreds of years and many have been etched by slow solution by rainwater as a result. Common fossils include crinoid columnals, tabulate and rugose corals, brachiopods, and molluscs (Donovan, 2016; van Ruiten and Donovan, in review). These are most commonly seen in two dimensions and random sections, a different view of life to what the life scientists are usually accustomed. One group of fossils in these rocks were a mystery until recently, but we now know they are sections through rostroconchs (Donovan and Madern, 2016, p. 349), an extinct group of Palaeozoic molluscs. Rostroconchs were formerly considered to be an ancient group of bivalves and they are certainly bivalve-like in appearance, but lack an articulation of interlocking teeth and a ligament. That is, the shell is a univalve, a one-piece structure. I had only seen the sections of rostroconchs in building stones in Leiden. It was therefore gratifying, shortly after publication of these fossils, to … Read More

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Inclusions in precious and semi-precious gemstones

Dr Robert Sturm (Austria) Gemstones are commonly regarded as natural wonders, and their infatuating beauty and rareness has fascinated us from time immemorial. Besides the obvious macroscopic appearance, many a gemstone is characterised by a ‘hidden’ microscopic inner life of breathtaking aesthetics. Among non-experts, such inclusions in precious and semi-precious gemstones are often interpreted as ‘pollution’ or as ‘blots’. On the other hand, among gemologists, inclusions bear valuable information about the genesis of their hosts and may also increase the value of a stone. The main characteristics of inclusions in precious and semi-precious gemstones Basically, inclusions in gemstones occur in three aggregate states: solid, liquid and gaseous. Solid inclusions are generally represented by those minerals found in close vicinity to the host stone or correspond with the chemistry of the host stone. These mineral inclusions either crystallise before their host (protogenetic), at the same time (syngenetic) or after its formation (epigenetic). Epigenetic crystallisation of inclusions takes place in most cases by so-called dismixture processes during the cooling of the host stone. Inclusions being generated in such a way are commonly characterised by the same orientation as the host crystal (for example, needles of rutile in corundum – rutile is a mineral composed primarily of titanium dioxide). Liquid and gaseous inclusions are often marked by some kind of coexistence, so that they are summarised by the term “fluid inclusions”. They have to be regarded as a consequence of the fact that many gemstones form from a liquid or aqueous medium, and … Read More

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Scottish ‘Stones of Destiny’

Rosalind Jones (France) “Time and tide wait for no man” and “truth is often stranger than fiction.” Both these sayings apply to Scotland, especially Argyll with its islands at ‘the edge of the world’. Here, historic stones – some truly associated with destiny, others more dubiously linked by legend – fascinate and abound. Fig. 1. Perched erratic, Ben Hogh, CollColl and Tiree, to the northwest of Mull and Iona, are non-identical ‘twins’. Coll is rugged and rocky; Tiree is low, fertile and flat. However, in common with islands of the Outer Hebrides, both have pure white strands of calcareous sand made chiefly from maerl, backed by sand dunes of flower strewn machair (a low-lying grassy plain found on some of the northwest coastlines of Ireland and Scotland, in particular, the Outer Hebrides). Individually, they have their own strange, legendary stones – glacial erratics that have drawn myth to themselves and one which ‘rings’ its own warning today. Fig. 2. Sand dunes and white maerl sandy beach, Isle of Coll.Maerl is formed when Atlantic Ocean currents force upwards dissolved mineral that nourishes the marine organisms of the Hebridean fringe. From this rich cold water, calcium carbonate is extracted, not only by invertebrates to make their shells, but also by the calcareous red algae, Phymatolithon and Lithothamnion coralloides, collectively known as ‘maerl’. Found at depths of between 10m and 18m, living maerl beds produce small granules between 2mm and 10mm in size that accumulate in beds and which grow at 1mm a year. Sorted by currents and eventually washed landwards … Read More

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