Baltic amber from Kalingrad

E R Matheau-Raven (UK) Amber is the hardened resin of coniferous and angiosperm trees. Resin should not be confused with sap, which is a product of photosynthesis that consists of sugars, water and dissolved minerals. The sticky extrusive mass that comes from a cut on a pine tree is resin. Under the proper conditions, it undergoes certain physical and chemical changes that turn it into amber. If resin has hardened in recent times, it is called copal. Columbia, in South America, has extensive copal deposits. Presently, certain trees produce large quantities of resin; the Kauri gum from New Zealand (Agathis australis), the Sundarac from Australia (Tetraclinis articulata), the Gum Arabic tree from Africa (Acacia arabica)and the Algarroba tree from South America (Hymenaea courbaril. It was trees like these that produced the resin that often trapped unsuspecting insects and even some slightly larger animals. Like fly paper, the more the animal struggled to get free, the more entangled it became. Fig. 1. Caddis fly: Order – Diptera. Often, the origin of the amber can be derived visually from the amber itself. Baltic amber may have a cloudy appearance, due to air bubbles and also has a high percentage of Succinic acid, as much as 8% by weight. It is a high-molecular compound of organic acids and has been produced as a result of fossilisation of the resin from the pine, Pinus succinifera. This tree was prospering in the Baltic area 40 to 45 million years ago. Fig. 2. Ant (worker): Order … Read More

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