The “thick-shelled mussel” Pycnodonte (Phygraea) vesiculare: Germany’s “Fossil of the Year” 2017

Jens Lehmann (Germany) Thick-shelled oysters of the species Pycnodonte (Phygraea) vesiculare (Lamarck, 1806) are among the most common fossils of the late Cretaceous period of Europe. They are also known as “thick-shelled mussels” in the popular wisdom and the reason for this name is obvious when you have a look at a typical example (Fig. 1). Fig. 1. A large specimen of Pycnodonte (Phygraea) vesiculare, as typically occurring in the latest Cretaceous of Europe. From the Campanian of Haldem near Lemförde in Germany. This is an historically important specimen, because it belongs to the reference material of Arnold (1968) from this famous locality, which has produced many type specimens of fossils. GSUB L559. They can be seen in many museums, but, even more often, they are encountered during walks along the beaches under the chalk cliffs of England or around the Baltic Sea in continental Europe. A famous locality is the island of Rügen in Germany, where tourists can easily spot them (Fig. 2). Fig. 2. Collecting Pycnodonte from Late Cretaceous (early Maastrichtian) chalks is popular among tourists on the Isle of Rügen (Promoisel pit near Saßnitz) in northeastern Germany. (Photo by Martin Krogmann, 2014.) Therefore, it is not surprising that this extinct oyster species was selected as “Fossil of the Year” 2017 by the German Palaeontological Society (Paläontologische Gesellschaft) due to its ease of recognition (Kutscher 2017). Further reasons for the vote include its scientific and scientific-historical significance. This is the second time the society voted for a fossil … Read More

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