Tauern gold: The history of gold mining in the Central Alps

Dr Robert Sturm (Austria) Exploitation of gold deposits in the Hohe Tauern, in the Central Alps of Austria, has a long history: occurrences of this noble metal were explored for the first time about 2,000 years ago. Since the fourteenth century, the search for gold has been conducted on an industrial level, resulting in the production of 130km of tunnels and shafts, with the main centres of medieval gold production being the Gastein Valley, Rauris, Heiligenblut, Fusch and, later on, Schellgaden. In the second half of the fifteenth century, all of the gold found in the Central Alps was sold to Venice, but from the year 1501, the noble metal was exclusively used for indigenous minting and, therefore, all gold mines came under the archbishop’s control. Fig. 1. Map showing the position of the Hohe Tauern National Park (green) in Austria and the main locations of historical and current gold exploration. The economic zenith of gold exploitation in the Central Alps was reached in the middle of the sixteenth century. At this time, three families – the Weitmosers, Zolts and Strassers – dominated the mining industry in the Gastein Valley and in Rauris. In 1557, 830kg of gold (corresponding to about 27,000 ounces) and 2,723kg of silver were hauled from the mines. However, 50 years later, gold mining ceased completely. The main reason for this economic collapse was the total exhaustion of all lodes of ore that had been exploited in the Hohe Tauern until that time. Furthermore, only ‘visible’ … Read More

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